Geography and History

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Benin (west), Cameroon (east), and Chad and Niger (north)


Overview of Nigeria History
The British, who colonized the area, divided it into Northern and Southern Protectorates. In 1914, Lord Lugard amalgamated the Northern and Southern Protectorates to create NIGERIA. The country was divided into three administrative regions, Eastern, Northern, and Western. In 1960, she gained independence from Britain and proceeded to became a Republic in 1963. That same year saw the creation of the Mid-West region bringing the total to four regions. It remained four regions until 1967 when the head of states and commander in chief of the armed forces, General Yakubu Gowon divided the country into 12 States. From 1967 to 1970, the country was divided briefly as it fought a civil war when the Igbos seceded to form the Republic of Biafra.

Total area: 923,770 sq. km

  • Land area: 910,770 sq. km

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land Boundaries

Total 4,047 km (2,513 miles)

West -- Benin 773 km
East -- Cameroon 1,690 km
Northeast -- Chad 87 km
North -- Niger 1,497 km


853 km -- represents the South border

Natural Resources

* Petroleum * Tin * Columbite
* Iron * Ore * Coal
* Limestone * Lead * Zinc
* Natural gas



  • Varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
  • Highest temps from February to April in the South, and March to June in the North.
  • Lowest in July and August for most of the nation
  • April through October signals the rainy season especially in the south
  • Harmattan season brings much lower temperatures at nights and early mornings during the months of December and January
  • Average minimum temperature varies from 22.2 Deg. C (72 deg F) in the south to 18.88 deg C (66 Deg. F) in the north

Southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Irrigated Land
8,650 sq. km (1989 est.)

Land Use

* Arable land: 31%
* Meadows and pastures: 23%
* Forest and woodland: 15%
* Permanent crops: 3%
* Other: 28%



  • Current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities
  • Natural hazards: periodic droughts
  • International agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified, Biodiversity, Climate Change

Maritime Claims

  • Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
  • Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  • Territorial sea: 30 nm

International Disputes
Demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary commission, created with Cameroon to discuss unresolved land and maritime boundaries, has not yet convened, but a commission was formed January 1994 to study a flare-up of the dispute. The dispute with Cameroon remains unresolved at this time.

Introducing Nigeria ... welcome, listed below are links that will get you familiar with the Federal Republic of Nigeria and her people.
Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia Copyright (c) 1994, 1995, 1996 SoftKey Multimedia Inc. All Rights Reserve

>> The Nigerian National Anthem

>> Major Cities and Towns in Nigeria

>> The Flag of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

>> History and Geography

>> Map of the 36 States of the Federation

>> A List of the 36 States and their Capitals

>> A Map of the Nigerian Cities

>> The Nigerian People

>> Nigerian Languages

>> From 12 to 36 States - The Four Stages


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